Chronic kidney disease and the global public health agenda: an international consensus

  • World Health Organization. SDG target 3.4 non-communicable diseases and mental health. (2024).

  • World Health Organization. Non-communicable diseases. (2022).

  • Hsu, C. Y. et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 74, 101–107 (2008).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Coca, S. G., Singanamala, S. & Parikh, C. R. Chronic kidney disease after acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kidney Int. 81, 442–448 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • James, M. T. et al. Glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and the incidence and consequences of acute kidney injury: a cohort study. Lancet 376, 2096–2103 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • James, M. T. et al. A meta-analysis of the association of estimated GFR, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension with acute kidney injury. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 66, 602–612 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • GBD Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration. Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 395, 709–733 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bikbov, B. Core global metrics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) mortality in the GBD 2019 study. Zenodo (2023).

  • Jager, K. J. et al. A single number for advocacy and communication-worldwide more than 850 million individuals have kidney diseases. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 34, 1803–1805 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bosi, A. et al. Use of nephrotoxic medications in adults with chronic kidney disease in Swedish and US routine care. Clin. Kidney J. 15, 442–451 (2022).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2021 (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2021).

  • Gummidi, B. et al. A systematic study of the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in Uddanam, India. Kidney Int. Rep. 5, 2246–2255 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • GBD. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388, 1459–1544 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Foreman, K. J. et al. Forecasting life expectancy, years of life lost, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 250 causes of death: reference and alternative scenarios for 2016–40 for 195 countries and territories. Lancet 392, 2052–2090 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Kidney disease statistics for the United States. (2023).

  • Stanifer, J. W., Muiru, A., Jafar, T. H. & Patel, U. D. Chronic kidney disease in low- and middle-income countries. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 31, 868–874 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mehta, R. L. et al. Recognition and management of acute kidney injury in the International Society of Nephrology 0by25 Global Snapshot: a multinational cross-sectional study. Lancet 387, 2017–2025 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewington, A. J., Cerdá, J. & Mehta, R. L. Raising awareness of acute kidney injury: a global perspective of a silent killer. Kidney Int. 84, 457–467 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Olowu, W. A. et al. Outcomes of acute kidney injury in children and adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Lancet Glob. Health 4, e242–e250 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Jha, V. & Parameswaran, S. Community-acquired acute kidney injury in tropical countries. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 9, 278–290 (2013).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mehta, R. L. et al. International Society of Nephrology’s 0by25 initiative for acute kidney injury (zero preventable deaths by 2025): a human rights case for nephrology. Lancet 385, 2616–2643 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Liyanage, T. et al. Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review. Lancet 385, 1975–1982 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • United States Renal Data System. 2022 USRDS Annual Data Report: Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United States (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2022).

  • Bello, A. K. et al. Status of care for end stage kidney disease in countries and regions worldwide: international cross sectional survey. BMJ 367, l5873 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Anand, S., Bitton, A. & Gaziano, T. The gap between estimated incidence of end-stage renal disease and use of therapy. PLoS One 8, e72860 (2013).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, B. et al. Global cardiovascular and renal outcomes of reduced GFR. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 28, 2167–2179 (2017).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population prospects 2019: highlights. (2019).

  • WDA Global Longevity Council. Living longer around the world: opportunities and challenges. (2022).

  • Levey, A. S., Inker, L. A. & Coresh, J. Should the definition of CKD be changed to include age-adapted GFR criteria?”: con: the evaluation and management of CKD, not the definition, should be age-adapted. Kidney Int. 97, 37–40 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hallan, S. I. et al. Age and association of kidney measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease. JAMA 308, 2349–2360, (2012).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ravani, P. et al. Association of age with risk of kidney failure in adults with stage IV chronic kidney disease in Canada. JAMA Netw. Open 3, e2017150–e2017150 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Sullivan, E. D., Hughes, J. & Ferenbach, D. A. Renal aging: causes and consequences. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 28, 407–420 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ebert, T. et al. Inflammation and premature ageing in chronic kidney disease. Toxins 12, 227, (2020).

  • Kataria, A., Trasande, L. & Trachtman, H. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 11, 610–625 (2015).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wearne, N. & Okpechi, I. G. HIV-associated renal disease — an overview. Clin. Nephrol. 86, 41–47 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hossain, M. P., Goyder, E. C., Rigby, J. E. & El Nahas, M. CKD and poverty: a growing global challenge. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 53, 166–174 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shoham, D. A. et al. Kidney disease and the cumulative burden of life course socioeconomic conditions: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Soc. Sci. Med 67, 1311–1320 (2008).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Akrawi, D. S., Li, X., Sundquist, J., Sundquist, K. & Zöller, B. End stage renal disease risk and neighbourhood deprivation: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 25, 853–859 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wyld, M. L. R. et al. Sex-based differences in risk factors and complications of chronic kidney disease. Semin. Nephrol. 42, 153–169 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Eneanya, N. D. et al. Health inequities and the inappropriate use of race in nephrology. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 18, 84–94 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Barraclough, K. A., Blashki, G. A., Holt, S. G. & Agar, J. W. M. Climate change and kidney disease-threats and opportunities. Kidney Int. 92, 526–530 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Burkart, K. G. et al. Estimating the cause-specific relative risks of non-optimal temperature on daily mortality: a two-part modelling approach applied to the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 398, 685–697 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ebi, K. L. et al. Hot weather and heat extremes: health risks. Lancet 398, 698–708 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosinger, A. Y. et al. Drinking water salinity is associated with hypertension and hyperdilute urine among Daasanach pastoralists in Northern Kenya. Sci. Total. Environ. 770, 144667 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wan, E. T., Darssan, D., Karatela, S., Reid, S. A. & Osborne, N. J. Association of pesticides and kidney function among adults in the US population 2001–2010. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, 10249 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gao, Z. et al. Toxic nephropathy secondary to chronic mercury poisoning: clinical characteristics and outcomes. Kidney Int. Rep. 7, 1189–1197 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, R. J., Wesseling, C. & Newman, L. S. Chronic kidney disease of unknown cause in agricultural communities. N. Engl. J. Med. 380, 1843–1852 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • John, O. et al. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in India: what do we know and where we need to go. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 2743–2751 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Parameswaran, S. et al. A newly recognized endemic region of CKD of undetermined etiology (CKDu) in South India — “Tondaimandalam nephropathy”. Kidney Int. Rep. 5, 2066–2073 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Arora, S., Ps, P., Sahoo, J., Vairappan, B. & Parameswaran, S. Seasonal changes in kidney function in CKD of uncertain etiology. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 2918–2921 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wijewickrama, E. S. et al. Prevalence of CKD of unknown etiology and its potential risk factors in a rural population in Sri Lanka. Kidney Int. Rep. 7, 2303–2307 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera, J. W. et al. Chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities: a patient in Paraguay. Kidney Int. Rep. 7, 1131–1135 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Talukder, M. R. R., Rutherford, S., Phung, D., Islam, M. Z. & Chu, C. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh. Environ. Pollut. 214, 248–254 (2016).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, J. R., Awan, N., Archie, R. J., Sultana, N. & Muurlink, O. The association between drinking water salinity and hypertension in coastal Bangladesh. Glob. Health J. 4, 153–158 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, A. E. et al. Salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in coastal Bangladesh: a case-control study. PLoS One 9, e108715 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Blum, M. F. et al. Particulate matter and albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, and incident CKD. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 15, 311–319 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowe, B. et al. Estimates of the 2016 global burden of kidney disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter air pollution. BMJ Open 9, e022450 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • He, P. et al. Higher ambient nitrogen dioxide is associated with an elevated risk of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. Clin. Kidney J. 15, 95–100 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Drought in numbers 2022 — restoration for readiness and resilience. (2022).

  • Agar, J. W. M. & Barraclough, K. A. Water use in dialysis: environmental considerations. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 16, 556–557 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sekkarie, M., Hiracham, P., Soudan, K. & Rifai, A. O. Hemodialysis machines capable of performing isolated ultrafiltration in the absence of adequate water supply are needed during disasters. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 1480–1481 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Isreb, M. A. et al. The effect of war on Syrian refugees with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. Rep. 2, 960–963 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Koubar, S. H., Hajj Nasan, K. & Sekkarie, M. A. K. Nephrology workforce and education in conflict zones. Kidney Int. Rep. 7, 129–132 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sever, M. et al. The Marmara earthquake: epidemiological analysis of the victims with nephrological problems. Kidney Int. 60, 1114–1123 (2001).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Luyckx, V. A. & Brenner, B. M. Birth weight, malnutrition and kidney-associated outcomes — a global concern. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 11, 135–149 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilding, S. et al. Are socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age birth narrowing? Findings from a population-based cohort in the South of England. BMJ Open 9, e026998 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoy, W. E., Swanson, C. E. & Mott, S. A. Birthweight and the prevalence, progression, and incidence of CKD in a multideterminant model in a high-risk Australian aboriginal community. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 2782–2793 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gjerde, A., Skrunes, R., Reisæter, A. V., Marti, H.-P. & Vikse, B. E. Familial contributions to the association between low birth weight and risk of CKD in adult life. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 2151–2158 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lillås, B. S., Qvale, T. H., Richter, B. K. & Vikse, B. E. Birth weight is associated with kidney size in middle-aged women. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 2794–2802 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hsu, C. W., Yamamoto, K. T., Henry, R. K., De Roos, A. J. & Flynn, J. T. Prenatal risk factors for childhood CKD. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 25, 2105–2111 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Crump, C., Sundquist, J., Winkleby, M. A. & Sundquist, K. Preterm birth and risk of chronic kidney disease from childhood into mid-adulthood: national cohort study. BMJ 365, l1346 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanderson, K. R. et al. Albuminuria, hypertension, and reduced kidney volumes in adolescents born extremely premature. Front Pediatr. 8, 230 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hingorani, S. et al. Prevalence and risk factors for kidney disease and elevated BP in 2-year-old children born extremely premature. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17, 1129–1138 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Luyckx, V. A. et al. A developmental approach to the prevention of hypertension and kidney disease: a report from the Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group. Lancet 390, 424–428 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Guo, Q., Wu, S., Xu, C., Wang, J. & Chen, J. Global disease burden from acute glomerulonephritis 1990–2019. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 2212–2217 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerdá, J. et al. Acute kidney injury recognition in low- and middle-income countries. Kidney Int. Rep. 2, 530–543 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kashani, K. et al. Acute kidney injury risk assessment: differences and similarities between resource-limited and resource-rich countries. Kidney Int. Rep. 2, 519–529 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Smoyer, W. E. et al. Saving young lives with acute kidney injury: the challenge of acute dialysis in low-resource settings. Kidney Int. 89, 254–256 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang, C. W. Leptospirosis renal disease: emerging culprit of chronic kidney disease unknown etiology. Nephron 138, 129–136 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Phannajit, J. et al. Long-term kidney outcomes after leptospirosis: a prospective multicenter cohort study in Thailand. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 38, 2182–2191 (2023).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Riefkohl, A. et al. Leptospira seropositivity as a risk factor for Mesoamerican nephropathy. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 23, 1–10 (2017).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Martins, D. et al. The association of poverty with the prevalence of albuminuria: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am. J. Kidney Dis. 47, 965–971 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Drey, N., Roderick, P., Mullee, M. & Rogerson, M. A population-based study of the incidence and outcomes of diagnosed chronic kidney disease. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 42, 677–684 (2003).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Morton, R. L. et al. Impact of CKD on household income. Kidney Int. Rep. 3, 610–618 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Chesnaye, N. C., Carrero, J. J., Hecking, M. & Jager, K. J. Differences in the epidemiology, management and outcomes of kidney disease in men and women. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 20, 7–20 (2024).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Melsom, T. et al. Sex differences in age-related loss of kidney function. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 33, 1891–1902 (2022).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • van der Burgh, A. C., Rizopoulos, D., Ikram, M. A., Hoorn, E. J. & Chaker, L. Determinants of the evolution of kidney function with age. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 3054–3063 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ritchie, H. Causes of death. Our World in Data (2019).

  • Tummalapalli, S. L. et al. Availability and affordability of kidney health laboratory tests around the globe. Am. J. Nephrol. 51, 959–965 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Talbot, B., Athavale, A., Jha, V. & Gallagher, M. Data challenges in addressing chronic kidney disease in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Kidney Int. Rep. 6, 1503–1512 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ng, M. S. Y., Charu, V., Johnson, D. W., O’Shaughnessy, M. M. & Mallett, A. J. National and international kidney failure registries: characteristics, commonalities, and contrasts. Kidney Int. 101, 23–35 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Davids, M. R. et al. A renal registry for Africa: first steps. Clin. Kidney J. 9, 162–167 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Luxardo, R., Ceretta, L., González-Bedat, M., Ferreiro, A. & Rosa-Diez, G. The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Registry: report 2019. Clin. Kidney J. 15, 425–431 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bello, A.K. et al. ISN — global kidney health atlas: a report by the International Society of Nephrology: an assessment of global kidney health care status focussing on capacity, availability, accessibility, affordability and outcomes of kidney disease. (International Society of Nephrology, 2023).

  • Bello, A. K. et al. Global overview of health systems oversight and financing for kidney care. Kidney Int. Suppl. 8, 41–51 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Narva, A. S. et al. Toward a more collaborative federal response to chronic kidney disease. Adv. Chronic kidney Dis. 17, 282–288 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • European Commission. Healthier together — EU non-communicable diseases initiative. (2022).

  • Shlipak, M. G. et al. The case for early identification and intervention of chronic kidney disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) controversies conference. Kidney Int. 99, 34–47 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization. The top 10 causes of death. (2020).

  • Boenink, R. et al. The ERA registry annual report 2019: summary and age comparisons. Clin. Kidney J. 15, 452–472 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Zoccali, C. et al. The systemic nature of CKD. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 13, 344–358 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vos, T. et al. Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet 396, 1204–1222 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Xie, Y. et al. Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease study highlights the global, regional, and national trends of chronic kidney disease epidemiology from 1990 to 2016. Kidney Int. 94, 567–581 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalantar-Zadeh, K. et al. Patient-centred approaches for the management of unpleasant symptoms in kidney disease. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 18, 185–198 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Fletcher, B. R. et al. Symptom burden and health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Med. 19, e1003954 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis, A. et al. Quality of life of children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study. Arch. Dis. Child 104, 134–140 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Chesnaye, N. C. et al. Health-related quality-of-life trajectories over time in older men and women with advanced chronic kidney disease. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17, 205–214 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • de Rooij, E. N. M. et al. Quality of life before and after the start of dialysis in older patients. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17, 1159–1167 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • de Rooij, E. N. M. et al. Symptom burden before and after dialysis initiation in older patients. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17, 1719–1729 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahmoud, D. A. M., Saad, A., Abdelhamid, Y. H. & El Hawary, Y. Depression and psychosocial burden among caregivers of children with chronic kidney disease. Middle East Curr. Psychiatry 28, 12 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pereira, Bd. S. et al. Beyond quality of life: a cross sectional study on the mental health of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis and their caregivers. Health Qual. Life Outcomes 15, 74 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shukri, M., Mustofai, M. A., Md Yasin, M. A. S. & Tuan Hadi, T. S. Burden, quality of life, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among caregivers of hemodialysis patients: the role of social support. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 55, 397–407 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Adejumo, O. A., Iyawe, I. O., Akinbodewa, A. A., Abolarin, O. S. & Alli, E. O. Burden, psychological well-being and quality of life of caregivers of end stage renal disease patients. Ghana Med. J. 53, 190–196, (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Luyckx, V. A., Tonelli, M. & Stanifer, J. W. The global burden of kidney disease and the sustainable development goals. Bull. World Health Organ. 96, 414–422 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization. Global health estimates: leading causes of death. Cause-specific mortality, 2000–2019. Global Health Observatory (2020).

  • Tonelli, M. et al. Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17, 2034–2047 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis, A., Baigent, C., Ikizler, T. A., Cockwell, P. & Jha, V. The urgent need to vaccinate dialysis patients against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: a call to action. Kidney Int. 99, 791–793 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • McDonald, H. I., Thomas, S. L. & Nitsch, D. Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for acute community-acquired infections in high-income countries: a systematic review. BMJ Open 4, e004100 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanaka, S. & Okusa, M. D. Crosstalk between the nervous system and the kidney. Kidney Int. 97, 466–476 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rangaswami, J. et al. Cardiorenal syndrome: classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment strategies: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 139, e840–e878 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Husain-Syed, F., Slutsky, A. S. & Ronco, C. Lung-kidney cross-talk in the critically ill patient. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 194, 402–414 (2016).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Visseren, F. L. J. et al. 2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: developed by the task force for cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice with representatives of the European Society of Cardiology and 12 medical societies with the special contribution of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC). Eur. Heart J. 42, 3227–3337 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortiz, A., Wanner, C. & Gansevoort, R. Chronic kidney disease as cardiovascular risk factor in routine clinical practice: a position statement by the Council of the European Renal Association. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol. 29, 2211–2215 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kerr, M., Bray, B., Medcalf, J., O’Donoghue, D. J. & Matthews, B. Estimating the financial cost of chronic kidney disease to the NHS in England. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 27 (Suppl. 3), 73–80 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vanholder, R. et al. Reducing the costs of chronic kidney disease while delivering quality health care: a call to action. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 13, 393–409 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaikh, M. et al. Utilization, costs, and outcomes for patients receiving publicly funded hemodialysis in India. Kidney Int. 94, 440–445 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Tonelli, M. et al. Comparison of the complexity of patients seen by different medical subspecialists in a universal health care system. JAMA Netw. Open 1, e184852–e184852 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vanholder, R. et al. Fighting the unbearable lightness of neglecting kidney health: the decade of the kidney. Clin. Kidney J. 14, 1719–1730 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Riaz, P. et al. Workforce capacity for the care of patients with kidney failure across world countries and regions. BMJ Glob. Health 6, e004014 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lalji, R. et al. Disparities in end-stage kidney disease care for children: a global survey. Kidney Int. 98, 527–532 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Essue, B. M. et al. In Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (eds Jamison, D. T. et al.) (The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2017).

  • Kim, S. et al. Cognitive and academic outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr. Nephrol. 37, 2715–2724 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Khalid, R. et al. Association between socioeconomic status and academic performance in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr. Nephrol. 37, 3195–3204 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Erickson, K. F., Zhao, B., Ho, V. & Winkelmayer, W. C. Employment among patients starting dialysis in the United States. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 13, 265–273 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vollset, S. E. et al. Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 396, 1285–1306 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Htay, H. et al. Global access of patients with kidney disease to health technologies and medications: findings from the Global Kidney Health Atlas project. Kidney Int. Suppl. 8, 64–73 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Levin A, S. P. et al. Kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) CKD work group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. Suppl. 3, 1–150 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  • Li, P. K.-T. et al. Kidney health for everyone everywhere — from prevention to detection and equitable access to care. Kidney Int. Rep. 5, 245–251 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis, A. et al. Barriers to accessing essential medicines for kidney disease in low and low middle income countries. Kidney Int. 5, 969–973 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Thurlow, J. S. et al. Global epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease and disparities in kidney replacement therapy. Am. J. Nephrol. 52, 98–107 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Alencar de Pinho, N. et al. Understanding international variations in kidney failure incidence and initiation of replacement therapy. Kidney Int. Rep. 7, 2364–2375 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang, S. C. W. et al. Dialysis care and dialysis funding in Asia. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 75, 772–781 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lalji, R., Francis, A., Johnson, D. W. & McCulloch, M. Health disparities in access to kidney replacement therapy amongst children and adolescents with end-stage kidney disease in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Kidney Int. 97, 463–465 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashuntantang, G. et al. Outcomes in adults and children with end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Lancet Glob. Health 5, e408–e417 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez-Bedat, M. C. et al. Burden of disease: closing the gaps in the burden of end-stage kidney disease in Latin America. Clin. Nephrol. 93, 55–59 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Baigent, C. et al. Impact of diabetes on the effects of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors on kidney outcomes: collaborative meta-analysis of large placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 400, 1788–1801 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanifer, J. W. et al. The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa: aasystematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob. Health 2, e174–e181 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hole, B. D. et al. International collaborative efforts to establish kidney health surveillance systems. Kidney Int. 98, 812–816 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez-Peña, M. et al. High prevalence of end-stage renal disease of unknown origin in Aguascalientes Mexico: role of the registry of chronic kidney disease and renal biopsy in its approach and future directions. Clin. Kidney J. 14, 1197–1206 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Salas, R. N., Maibach, E., Pencheon, D., Watts, N. & Frumkin, H. A pathway to net zero emissions for healthcare. BMJ 371, m3785 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sehgal, A. R., Slutzman, J. E. & Huml, A. M. Sources of variation in the carbon footprint of hemodialysis treatment. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 33, 1790–1795 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao, N., Rajan, T. & Stigant, C. Quantification of recyclable peritoneal dialysis plastics in a home dialysis program — an opportunity for resource stewardship. Kidney Int. Rep. 8, 365–367 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bendine, G. et al. Haemodialysis therapy and sustainable growth: a corporate experience in France. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 35, 2154–2160 (2020).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • link

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *